CANNABIS CULTURE – “…the Indian hashish has so many features and the Indians use it principally of their incense combination that’s used within the temples and a few individuals choose it extra then the dregs of the wine and Yanbushath stated it’s also referred to as the Chinese language seed.”
–Ghayat AlHakim* [translation from (Hashem Atallah, 2002) edition]
The Ghayat AlHakim was a medieval Arabic Grimoire which is claimed to have impressed one of many foundational paperwork of the Western magickal custom, the Picatrix. With a superb new translation hitting the press, Picatrix: A Medieval Treatise on Astral Magic, it looks like a really perfect time to debate this drug crammed grimoire.
A sure avenue of the occult use of hashish from the Mid East into Europe, got here by means of the Ghayat AlHakim, ‘The Objective of the Sensible’, which was an Arabic grimoire thought to have been written someday between the 10th and 11th century. Through the 13th century reign of King Alfonso ‘the clever’, it was translated into Spanish after which Latin, and from there ahead it turned recognized in Europe by the title, Picatrix and served as one of many founding paperwork of the Western magical custom. Too controversial to ever have made it to the printing press previous to the 20th century, The Picatrix was handed round secretly, in wanted hand written manuscripts. Contemplating this mode of transmission, it isn’t shocking that there are variety of variations between the Arabic Ghāyat al-hakīm and surviving European variations of the Picatrix, and it appears doubtless in copying, some issues have been misplaced, and a few added by every further transcriber, however over all there’s sufficient in widespread to determine their relationship. These variations continued because the grimoire was hand transcribed for every re-creation.
The Ghayat AlHakim
In addition to the Latin and Arabic variations of The Picatrix, there have been medieval Hebrew translations as nicely, figuring out curiosity within the grimoire amongst Jewish Kabbalists. “There are two Hebrew variations of an important composition on magic, the Ghayat al-Hakim or Picatrix.”(Idel, 1992). An important of the 2 was translated from the Arabic , and is called Takhlit he-Hakham, later variations have been translated from the Latin or Spanish variations of the grimoire. “Three Hebrew translations of Picatrix have been preserved in Italian manuscripts written on the finish of the fifteenth and and the start of the sixteenth centuries” (Idel, 1992).
The Picatrix is comprised of four books with detailed directions within the arts of Astrology, Talismanic magic, and contacting the Astral Realm. The writer of the Picatrix claimed to have been put collectively from the works of over 2 hundred “historic sages”. Influences from the traditional texts of Egypt, India, Persia, Assyria, Chaldea, Greece and others have been famous, and unique components from China, Africa, India and different places could be discovered, indicating the metropolitan tradition from which it was created. As David Pingree notes in his essay A few of the Sources of the Ghāyat al-hakīm, it’s an “Arabic texts on Hermeticism, Sabianism, Ismailism, astrology, alchemy and magic produced within the Close to East within the ninth and tenth centuries A.D.” (Pingree, 1980). An clearly necessary textual content of Islamic magic, it offers trendy readers with an concept about a number of the occult beliefs and practices of esoteric Islamic teams such because the Ismailis, and sufis, whom we now have already been discussing for his or her use of cannabis. Because the textual content was translated in 13th century Spain it’s also value noting that, on the time, cannabis “was additionally brazenly consumed in Southern Spain till that nation’s reconquest by Isabella the Catholic and the reestablishment of the agency grip of the Roman Catholic Church” (Nahas, 1985).
Illustration from a medieval copy of Picatrix.
The unique authorship of the Ghayat AlHakim and thus the Picatrix has lengthy been a matter debate. The Latin manuscript’s prologue refers to “the sensible thinker, the noble and honored Picatrix” and it’s usually thought he named the guide after himself. A variety of medieval sources claimed that the identify ‘Picatrix’, was a poor translation of Hippocrates, though this affiliation has lengthy since been dismissed, as Hippocrates seems on the pages of the Picatrix as “Ypocras”. Others have claimed that the Arabic grimoire was written by Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti (an Andalusian mathematician), an affiliation thought to have been first made by made by the 14th century alchemist al-Jildaki, nevertheless, this authorship as properly has since been referred to as into query.
Trendy scholarship has since traced the work to the 10th century determine Abu l-Qāsim Maslama b. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī, (shortened to ‘Maslama’) who additionally compiled a textual content on alchemy, the Rutbat al- Ḥakīm, (The Rank of the Sage) and affirmation of this id, has just lately come via the invention of two medieval Arabic manuscripts that have been missed by earlier researchers, which check with Abu l-Qāsim Maslama b. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī because the writer. Maslama was described by Ibn al-Faradi was “a person of charms and talismans”, and different sources have described him as a ‘magician and charmer’, and a ‘Cordoban alchemist’. The id of Maslama, may be the supply of the identify ‘Picatrix’, by way of “a sort of cross linguistic pun” (Atrell, 2016). The Arabic phrase ‘m-s-l’ which pertains to the identify Maslama, means ‘to sting’ and thus the Spanish translator rendered this as Picatrix, a variant of the Latin phrase picator, which suggests means “one who stings or pricks” (Thomann, 1990).
Making no actual distinction between white and black magic, the spells and recipes of this medieval grimoire blurred the strains between, what would later be divided into the excessive and low magical traditions. Alongside using such substances as mandrake, hellebore, opium, hashish, datura and different psychoactive substances, can be discovered the ritual use of human stays, the blood of man and animal, semen, excrement and different foul components. In sure recipes, some extraordinarily poisonous substances are included, and it has been steered that this may increasingly have been a way utilized by the writer of the Picatrix, to separate the clever from much less value aspirants. “Such ploys would have definitely strengthened the notoriety regarding using magical grimoires just like the Picatrix” (Attrell, 2016).
Each the Arabic and Latin model are involved with talismanic astro-magic induced by fragrant fumigants, some inhaled via a ‘hole cross’ with exact instructions and diversified elements… Translations of Arabic texts… supply a context of supernatural crops and shamanic practices that proof a continued use of psychoactive incenses as a catalyst into trance or ecstatic states. (Dannaway, 2009)
Recipes for elixirs, ointments, tablets and incenses abound within the Picatrix, some getting used to deal with sickness, others to trigger hurt, and nonetheless others, for seeing visions and contacting the astral realm. Though, hashish, opium and different substances seem all through the pages of the Picatrix, the identification of those substances on this medieval grimoire, has “hitherto acquired little consideration from the students of medieval magic” (Attrell, 2016).
Probably the most extremely lively and harmful substances used within the Picatrix come from the household of solanaceous crops, resembling Mandragora officinarum and Hyoscyamus niger that are notorious for his or her makes use of in European witchcraft… Mandrake and Henbane, like Datura Stramonium (jimsonweed, satan’s trumpet, or thorn-apple) or Atropa Belladonna (Lethal Nightshade), are recognized to impress weird delirium, nightmarish hallucinations, out-of-body experiences and ‘flights.’ (Attrell, 2016)
Opium seems extra readily than hashish within the Picatrix, and consists of medicinal references (“breast milk with opium brings sleep to the feverish and insomniacs”) in addition to magical. One quite ugly magical recipes requires a lately eliminated human head, positioned in a big jug with eight ounces of opium, with equal elements human blood and sesame oil, to be sealed and sluggish cooked! The writer of the Picatrix wrote “that there have been many marvels in that oil, and the primary is that it permits you to see no matter you need to see.” One other recipe requires the magician to “Take a human penis, and chop it into items, and stir in powdered opium”![As translated in (Warnock & Greer, 2015)]. Others recipes name for opium to be combined with different psychoactive substances henbane seeds, nutmeg, calamus, wormwood, together with extra mildly psychoactive components, some for assist in producing smoke, like frankincense, myrrh and saffron, which aided in producing a extra nice smelling smoke, and that was probably wanted contemplating using blood, and different gadgets like “the top of a black cat”.
Dan Attrell, one of many two translators for the newest English version of the Picatrix, has written on the position of medicine within the medieval grimoire, and he notes that :
Just like the provoke of a pre-literate tradition’s shamanic rites, the sage who spent months planning his work, amassing animal, mineral, and botanical components, and charting out the fitting astrological hours to carry out his work, was probably assisted – in sure instances – with attaining what he desired by means of the assistance of psychoactive substances. The substances required for sure spells within the Picatrix are sometimes demanded in such excessive portions that a highly effective mind-altering expertise would have been inevitable for the practitioner suffumigating with it. In these dreamy (or delirious) states, the planetary spirits cascaded down into the thoughts of the adept who straddled the realm of widespread expertise and the summary realm of types hidden inside the unconscious. (Attrell & Porreca, 2018)
The primary technique of utilizing these substances, was by way of “suffumigation” i.e. via burning incenses and different means of making smoke. Because the writer of the Picatrix wrote of this technique: “Nice miracles and nice results, based on the Hindus, are in suffumigations, which they name calcitarat, and with them are labored the consequences of the seven planets. These suffumigations ought for use in line with the character of the planet to which the petition corresponds.”[As translated in (Warnock & Greer, 2015)] Quoting Hermes Trismegistus, the writer notes elsewhere that “Rituals carried out with suffumigations and prayers are simpler than these during which suffumigations are missing or the desire is split “ (Attrell & Porreca, 2018)
This ritual fumigation required the magician to typically stand over the burning fumes of the preparation and inhale the smoke in a enclosed area, and from a few of the elements and quantities used of those substances, we may be positive a ritual intoxications was acquired. “The aim of most suffumigation magic within the Picatrix is for the sake of contacting the planetary spirits. When the adept wished to talk with a planet, he dressed himself in robes dyed with the colors of his chosen planet, he selected its hours, he prayed its prayers, and he suffumigated with its components” (Attrell, 2016). The components various relying on the planetary help which was invoked, and never all components or recipes have been composed of psychoactive substances.
With regard to celestial deities, using opium was utilized in an invocation to the Solar, whereas using hashish seems in two magical operations which appeased the Moon. Right here, contemplating what we’ve seen concerning the affect of the Zoroastrian custom within the Islamic world, together with proof of the survival of the Haoma cult up into 19th century Syria, one might speculate that this affiliation between hashish and the moon, could also be a remnant of the celestial deities affiliation with Soma/Haoma. Within the Picatrix’s Ebook four chapter 2, which beliefs with moon magic, we discover two recipes that contain hashish. Nevertheless,these 2 recipes solely seem within the Latin and Spanish variations of The Picatrix, and cannot be discovered within the surviving Arabic model of the Ghayat AlHakim:
How one can converse with the spirits of the Moon, and first, when she is in Aries. Once you want to appeal to the advantage and energy of the Moon when she is in Aries, on the hour when she is totally risen, as a result of that’s higher and extra helpful in your petition; in that very hour, placed on a crown and go to a inexperienced and watery place close to the banks of a operating river or operating water. Take with you a rooster with a divided crest, which you’ll behead with the bone of one other rooster, as you need to not in any approach contact that rooster with iron. Flip your face to the Moon, for this can be a very nice secret amongst them [Chaldeans, and Egyptians]. Put in entrance of your self two iron thuribles filled with burning coals, during which you must forged successively grains of incense, in order that smoke rises up towards the Moon. Then stand upright between the censers and say: ‘You O Moon, luminous, honoured, pretty, who together with your mild shatters the shadows, you ascend in your rising and fill each horizon together with your mild and wonder. I come to you humbly, looking for wealth, for which I humbly ask you.’ Right here state your petition. Then take ten steps ahead, all the time wanting on the Moon, and repeating the aforesaid phrases. Carry one of many thuribles with you, into which you need to forged 4 ounces of storax.
Then burn your sacrifice, and draw the next figures on a leaf of hashish* with the ashes of the sacrifice and a small quantity of crocus. Then burn the leaf. Directly, because the smoke rises, you will notice earlier than you the determine of a good-looking man dressed within the best garments, standing between the thuribles, to whom you must handle your petition, and will probably be fulfilled by him. At any time after this, once you want to ask one thing of him, repeat the working simply given, and the aforesaid type will seem to you and reply your questions.” [As translated in (Warnock & Greer, 2015).]
Though the above recipe provides no actual indication of an quantity of hashish that might be inferred for psychoactive results and “it have to be admitted that this might be a sheet of hemp (like hemp paper), however it’s ambiguous” (Attrell, 2016). Nevertheless, elsewhere copious quantities of hashish resin may be discovered. As Dan Attrell has famous“The blood of a stag, an animal ruled by the Moon since antiquity, is floor collectively in a marble mortar with over a pound of cannabis (which at the moment is perhaps valued on the streets at round $5,000). The consumer of this specific suffumigation is instructed to place the combination right into a censer, set it alight, then stand above it while making prayers and sacrifices to the Moon, and solely then would the “servant of the Moon” (Lune servus) seem” (Attrell, 2016). As The Picatrix itself data:
When the Moon is in Pisces and also you want to draw upon her power and energy, take 1⅕ lbs. of hashish resin and the identical quantity of aircraft tree resin and blend them collectively. Extract these resins whereas the Solar is in Virgo and Mercury is luminous and advancing immediately. Grind them up in a marble mortar. When that is executed, add four oz. of mastic gum, 2 oz. every of amber and camphor, 1 oz. of alkali and 10 oz. of sarcocolla. Mix the whole lot very properly, to which you must add ½ lb. of the blood of a stag decapitated with a bronze knife. When the whole lot has been blended collectively, place it in a glass container. Go to a operating spring, and place the glass vessel on its outer lip. Subsequent, take a censer, and set it on a stone in the midst of the spring’s waters such that the censer be totally surrounded by water. Then, mild a fireplace in it. As soon as it’s lit, open the mouth of the glass container and empty out the container into the hearth little by little till the entire thing has poured out into the hearth. Subsequent, make your sacrifice. The servant of the Moon will seem to you, to whom you need to state your request. It is going to be led to its impact. [As translated in (Attrell and Porreca, 2018)].
With regard to using blood and narcotics on this invocation recipe, and all through the Picatrix, it’s value noting the feedback of Franz Hartmann, the German occultist and a founding member of the Ordo Templi Orientis :
Numerous means have been adopted to droop the discriminating energy of will and render the creativeness abnormally passive, and all such practices are injurious, in proportion as they’re eflicacious. The traditional Pythoness tried to intensify her already irregular receptivity by the inhalation of noxious vapours… others use opium, Indian hemp, and different narcotics, which not solely droop their will and render their thoughts a clean, however which additionally excite the mind, and induce morbid fancies and illusions.
…The fumigations which have been used at former occasions for the aim of rendering purpose inactive, and permitting the merchandise of a passive creativeness to seem in an goal state, have been often narcotic substances. Blood was solely used for the aim of furnishing substance to Elemental’s and Elementaries, by assistance from which they could render their our bodies extra dense and visual. (Hartmann, 1893).
The concept sacrificial smoke was a kind of meals for demons, goes significantly far again. “Zosimos holds the view that the daimons which inhabit the higher areas of the world are nourished by the smoke of sacriﬁce, and so are dependent upon the choices of human worshippers. There’s an implication that the ethereal our bodies of those daimons are literally replenished by the sacriﬁcial vapours, query that appears to have been debated in theurgic circles” (Fraser, 2004). Zosimos has additionally referred to using hashish in magical infusions.
It ought to be famous that the selection of a location the place the incense “censer,… [is]on a stone in the midst of the spring’s waters such that the censer be solely surrounded by water” would have provided some fascinating mild reflection alternatives that may have possible, performed nicely with the hearth and thick smoke of the cannabis and different ingredient infused incense. Placing all supernatural explanations apart, together with the consequences of the hearth mild enjoying off the water and smoke, clearly, the chemical results of the smoke alone from these substances, would improve any potential for Pareidolia, which refers to a psychological phenomenon by which the thoughts responds to a stimulus by perceiving a well-known sample the place none exists, i.e., as in seeing pictures in smoke, the identical smoke that offered the supply of inspiration. That is an historic, time examined and confirmed strategy of magic.
Smoke crammed Invocations
In addition to noting the position of smoke in giving the power of entities to take type in such invocations, Hartmann additionally recognized the continued use of narcotic fumigations in Europe for these similar functions. As we will by the Renaissance interval, this shamanic strategy of magic was significantly widespread, and references just like these of the Picatrix appeared in quite a few grimoires, however some dialogue of this right here, helps to raised perceive the context of the Picatrix account. .
There’s not a lot doubt the procedures of formality magic are more likely to trigger hallucinations. The magician prepares himself by abstinence and lack of sleep, or by drink, medicine and intercourse. He breathes in fumes which can have an effect on his mind and senses. He performs mysterious rites which tug on the deepest, most emotional and unreasoning ranges of his thoughts… By way of all this he concentrates on a psychological image of the being he hopes to see. It doesn’t appear in any respect unlikely that on the excessive level within the ceremony he may very well see it. (Cavendish, 1967)
This view of magical incense was additionally shared by 19th Century researchers. As Joseph Ennemoser, defined in Geschichte der Magie, (1844), (which got here out in English because the Historical past of Magic, in 1854):
The …vapours by which the clergymen of previous turned ecstatic, or which have been used upon the oracles, could also be classed among the many narcotics…
….Different preparations —by incense… — have been recognized and handed down from probably the most distant ages in Asia, Egypt, and Greece ; and it seems that they have been thence transferred, partly by early migrations, partly by the Crusades, to Europe…
…the strategies of manufacturing the magical states at; will and artificially are right here of historic date and common information. Of narcotic substances, opium, hemp, and lethal nightshade, we discover probably the most correct accounts, and they’re nonetheless in use among the many modem Persians, Moslems, and Arabs. Theurgy even contained the artwork of speaking with Spirits and of subjecting them. Thus the character of the imaginative and prescient typically exhibits that they’re produced by synthetic means… (Ennemoser, 1844/1854).
In Fiends, Ghosts and Sprites, together with an account of the origins and nature of perception within the Supernatural (1854), John N. Radcliffe echoed these views:
….the next intoxication induced by the inhalation of highly effective narcotic vapours – an intoxication which, as… within the instance of haschish, is peculiarly apt to the event of hallucinations – will sufficiently account for the phantasm of the smoke of the chafing-dish presenting any determine which the thoughts wishes to see.
….The motion of the narcotic vapour alone was adequate to induce hallucinations….
….Using intoxicating and stupifying medicine probably contributed additionally to the event of these concepts of unusual and fantastic transformations and anomalies of type with which the legends and romances of Oriental and European nations teem. … (Radcliffe, 1864)
The Picatrix and the Western Magical Custom
Resulting from not unfounded views of its ‘diabolical’ nature, to be caught with the Picatrix within the medieval interval, would have resulted in accusations of witchcraft and heresy and certain a trial by the Inquisition. The Picatrix, was listed among the many most abominable works of Nigromancia, or divination via daimonic conjuration, by Johannes Hartlieb in his mid 15th century work, Das puch aller verpoten kunst, ungelaubens und der zaubrey puch aller verpoten kunst, ungelaubens und der zaubrey, ‘The E-book of all Forbidden Arts, Superstition and Sorcery’ (which has additionally been famous for holding the oldest recognized description of witches’ flying ointments). References to the Picatrix may also be discovered within the Steganographia, ‘Secret Writings’, a piece on ‘angelic magic’, (1500) and the later Antipalus Maleficiorum, ‘The Enemy of Witchcraft’, (1508) each of which have been authored by Johannes Trithemius (1462-1516) a German Benedictine Abbot and occultist, whose college students included the well-known occult figures Agrippa and Paracelsus. Regardless of this diabolical popularity, this books affect on the European and occult traditions cannot be understated.
Regardless of these warning, The Picatrix, was in circulation in Europe, from the 13th century ahead, and handed by way of many arms. Apparently, we could possibly detect its affect on some essential occult figures, and using the psychoactive crops concerned appears to have been part of this transmission. Notably on this regard, are the the alchemist, Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541) (Paracelsus) and the theologian and occultist Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486-1535) (Agrippa) each of whom have been college students of Johannes Trithemius (1462-1516) who made reference to the Picatrix, in 2 works, indicating its potential availability on this interval, and each might be related with using a few of the potent psychoactive components referred to in Picatrix, for magickal makes use of, as I’ve proven in Liber 420. We will ensure that Trithemius circulated hand written copies of his manuscripts amongst his most gifted college students, and that the reference to the Picatrix with regard to invocation of angels in Ebook 2 of his Steganographia, ‘Secret Writings’, a piece on ‘angelic magic’, (1499; revealed 1606) stirred the curiosity of his college students, as a lot because the warnings within the later Antipalus Maleficiorum, ‘The Enemy of Witchcraft’, (1508; however not revealed till 1605), made them cautious of being caught with a replica of the manuscript.
“One of the crucial vital contributions of current Renaissance scholarship has been the popularity of the appreciable impression of magic on Renaissance thought…. the literary traces of Picatrix are discernible within the writings of a number of central thinkers corresponding to Giordano Bruno and Tommaso Campanella….” (Idel, 1992).
The Picatrix and The Necronimicon
It has additionally been loosely instructed that the Picatrix might have performed a task in pulp fiction horror author H.P. Lovecraft’s conception of the Necronimicon, ‘The E-book of Lifeless Names’:
In his ‘Cthulhu Mythos,’ H.P. Lovecraft created The Necronimicon, a fictional e-book of the occult that appeared in a number of of his tales. Lovecraft launched Abdul Alhazred, the ‘mad Arab,’ in his 1921 story ‘The Anonymous Metropolis,’ and The Necronimicon in his 1922 story ‘The Hound.’ He married the 2 in his 1926 basic, ‘The Name of Cthulhu,’ by which he revealed hat Abdul Alhazred, an opium and cannabis consumer, had written Al Azif, because the guide was supposedly recognized in Arabic. The writer’s fictional 1927 treatise, ‘The Historical past and Chronology of the Necronimicon,’ led many readers to consider that the tome was real. (Lamberson, 2001).
Including to Lovercraft’s mythos of the Necronimicon, and claims of its authenticity was the 1977 publication of a e-book that claimed to be the genuine model of ‘The Necronimicon’ by way of an nameless determine referred to as ’Simon’, which was written in a fashion and elegance which might be in some methods just like the Picatrix and different grimoires, and historic books of magic. This styling induced occultist Owen Davies to deem it a “properly constructed hoax” (Davies, 2010).
Abdul Alhazred, the Mad Arab, burning hashish incense
Because the authors of one of many trendy translation of The Picatrix have famous, claims of connections between the Necronimicon and Picatrix “positive factors a sure diploma of credibility from the exceptional parallels between the 2 works. Just like the Necronimicon, Picatrix was first written in Arabic, translated into Latin within the thirteenth century, and circulated superstitiously amongst Europeans occultists for hundreds of years thereafter. Each books include detailed directions for rituals meant to name down inhuman powers from what we might now name outer area, and embrace malefic magical workings of terrific energy” (Greer & Warnock, 2010). Such similarities are ever current, as Simon’s Necronimicon data: “ I discovered of the powers of the astral Gods, and how you can summon their help in occasions of want. I discovered, too, of the frightful beings who dwell past the astral spirits, who guard the doorway to the Temple of the Misplaced, of the Historic of Days, the Historic of the Historic Ones, whose Identify I can’t write right here.” – Necronimicon (Simon, 1977).
Their can also be a profound similarity within the type of the sigils in each works, and most significantly in relation to this tome, using sure medicine within the story. The elements of the Mad Arabs incense is listed as “olibanum, storax, dictamus, opium and cannabis” and all however dictamus might be discovered on the pages of the Picatrix, (and conceivably it too could possibly be there underneath one other identify).
Simon’s Necrominicon describes the Mad Arab’s discovery of a “unusual grass”, in what one can solely conclude is veiled reference to hashish:
In my solitary ceremonies within the hills, worshipping with hearth and sword, with water and dagger, and with the help of a wierd grass that grows wild in sure elements of MASSHU, and with which I had unwittingly constructed my hearth earlier than the rock, that grass that provides the thoughts nice energy to journey large distances into the heavens, as additionally into the hells, I acquired the formulae for the amulets and talismans which comply with, which give the Priest with protected passage among the many spheres whereby he might journey in the hunt for the Knowledge. – Necronimicon, (Simon, 1977).
Apparently, as we have now seen just about hashish, which was utilized in invocations of the moon, there appears to be an identical connection between this grass and the moon in Simon’s Necronimicon.
Now, there are Two Incantation to the Historic Ones set down right here, that are well-known to the Sorcerers of the Night time, they who make pictures and burn them by the Moon and by different Issues. They usually burn them by the Moon and by different Issues. They usually burn illegal grasses and herbs, and lift large Evils, and their Phrases are by no means written down, it’s stated. However there are… – Necronimicon, (Simon, 1977).
The record of “Historic Ones” within the hymn that follows, consists of quite a few Mesopotamian deities, and appears to pay particular homage to Ishtar, whose cult did the truth is use hashish. As Assyriologist Erica Reiner famous “the herb referred to as Sim.Ishara’armoatic of the Goddess Ishtar,’ …is equated with the Akkadian qunnabu, ‘hashish’… and in addition calls to thoughts the plant referred to as ki.na Istar” (Reiner, 1995)
One who appears to have taken the tales of the Necronimicon fairly actually, is M. Kienholz, who labored within the Spokane Police division for 18 years. In her e-book Opium Merchants and Their Worlds, she ties the controversial grimoire with the 16th century magician John Dee, who she describes as “was Queen Elizabeth’s particular agent” and his infamous scribe Edward Kelly a “charlatan and alchemist”, additional suggesting Dee as a possible candidate for advising “the British to deal in opium”. In reference to the Necronimicon, she wrote that “Whereas in Prague in 1586, Dee and Kelly searched out and plagiarized a replica of Necronimicon by Abdul Alhazred of Yemen, who developed a sort of incense containing ‘olibanum, storax, dictamus, opium and cannabis’” (Kienholz, 2008). Though Kienholz’s claims don’t appear notably credible, a case for Dee and Kelly’s use of psychoactive substances of their ritual scrying has been made.
For extra on the position of hashish and different medicine within the Magickal custom, take a look at Liber 420: Hashish, Magickal Herbs and the Occult.
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